ActiveStep has been included in more than 30 scholarly articles, including the recently published results of the RACE Study.

Featured Articles:

Lurie, J. D., Zagaria, A. B., Ellis, L., Pidgeon, D., Gill-Body, K. M., Burke, C., … & McDonough, C. M. (2020). Surface Perturbation Training to Prevent Falls in Older Adults: A Highly Pragmatic, Randomized Controlled Trial. Physical Therapy.

  • The RACE study, an NIH-funded, multi-center pragmatic study with over 500 subjects NCT01006967
  • At 3 months, the ActiveStep training group had significantly reduced chance of fall-related injury compared to the group who received standard physical therapy

Grabiner, M. D., Bareither, M. Lou, Gatts, S., Marone, J., & Troy, K. L. (2012). Task-specific training reduces trip-related fall risk in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(12), 2410–2414.

  • Healthy, community-dwelling women (n=52) were assigned to training or control groups. The training group was exposed to perturbations via ActiveStep.
  • After training, both groups underwent an overground tripping protocol. Those who were trained on ActiveStep were less likely to fall than the control group, had smaller trunk flexion angles, and a longer initial recovery step.

Lurie, J. D., Zagaria, A. B., Pidgeon, D. M., Forman, J. L., & Spratt, K. F. (2013). Pilot comparative effectiveness study of surface perturbation treadmill training to prevent falls in older adults. BMC Geriatrics, 13(1), 1.

  • Older adults, randomized into two groups, one group received standard physical therapy (n=33), the other group underwent physical therapy plus ActiveStep training (n=31).
  • After 3 months, the ActiveStep group had reported fewer falls than the standard physical therapy group.
    • This study was a pilot for a larger pragmatic trial called the RACE study, which was completed in 2016 (publication pending)

Gerards, M. H. G., McCrum, C., Mansfield, A., & Meijer, K. (2017). Perturbation-based balance training for falls reduction among older adults: Current evidence and implications for clinical practice. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 17(12), 2294–2303.

  • This review article concludes that perturbation-based balance training (including ActiveStep), leads to a reduction of falls in several patient populations, including:
    • Older adults
    • Parkinson’s
    • Stroke
  • Treadmill perturbations and therapist-delivered perturbations are the most practical methods for delivering this type of training to patients.

Most Recent Articles:

  • Nevisipour, M., Grabiner, M. D., & Honeycutt, C. F. (2019). A single session of trip-specific training modifies trunk control following treadmill induced balance perturbations in stroke survivors. Gait & Posture, 70(3), 222–228.
  • Patel, P. J., Bhatt, T., DelDonno, S. R., Langenecker, S. A., & Dusane, S. (2019). Examining Neural Plasticity for Slip-Perturbation Training: An fMRI Study. Frontiers in Neurology, 9(1).
  • Wang, Y., Bhatt, T., Liu, X., Wang, S., Lee, A., Wang, E., & Pai, Y.-C. (Clive). (2019). Can treadmill-slip perturbation training reduce immediate risk of over-ground-slip induced fall among community-dwelling older adults? Journal of Biomechanics, 84, 58–66.
  • Crenshaw, J. R., Bernhardt, K. A., Fortune, E., & Kaufman, K. R. (2019). The accuracy of rapid treadmill-belt movements as a means to deliver standing postural perturbations. Medical Engineering and Physics, 64, 93–99.
  • Patel, P. J., & Bhatt, T. (2018). Fall risk during opposing stance perturbations among healthy adults and chronic stroke survivors. Experimental Brain Research, 236(2), 619–628.
  • Crenshaw, J. R., Bernhardt, K. A., Atkinson, E. J., Khosla, S., Kaufman, K. R., & Amin, S. (2018). The relationships between compensatory stepping thresholds and measures of gait, standing postural control, strength, and balance confidence in older women. Gait and Posture, 65(8), 74–80.
  • Lee, A., Bhatt, T., Liu, X., Wang, Y., & Pai, Y. C. (2018). Can higher training practice dosage with treadmill slip-perturbation necessarily reduce risk of falls following overground slip? Gait and Posture, 61(1), 387–392.
  • Sung, P. S., & Danial, P. (2018). Trunk Reaction Time and Kinematic Changes Following Slip Perturbations in Subjects with Recurrent Low Back Pain. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 46(3), 488–497.
  • Rapp van Roden, E. A., Petersen, D. A., Pigman, J., Conner, B. C., Tyler Richardson, R., & Crenshaw, J. R. (2018). The contribution of counter-rotation movements during fall recovery: A validation study. Journal of Biomechanics, 78, 102–108.
  • McDowell, C., Smyk, M., & Sung, P. S. (2018). Compensatory strategy between trunk-hip kinematics and reaction time following slip perturbation between subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 43(12), 68–74.
  • Celinskis, D., Grabiner, M. D., & Honeycutt, C. F. (2018). Bilateral early activity in the hip flexors associated with falls in stroke survivors: Preliminary evidence from laboratory-induced falls. Clinical Neurophysiology, 129(1), 258–264.
  • Yang, F., Saucedo, F., & Qiao, M. (2018). Effects of a single-session stance-slip perturbation training program on reducing risk of slip-related falls. Journal of Biomechanics, 72, 1–6.
  • Oludare, S. O., Pater, M. L., Rosenblatt, N. J., & Grabiner, M. D. (2018). Trip-specific training enhances recovery after large postural disturbances for which there is expectation. Gait and Posture, 61(1), 382–386.
  • Yang, F., Cereceres, P., & Qiao, M. (2018). Treadmill-based gait-slip training with reduced training volume could still prevent slip-related falls. Gait and Posture, 66(8), 160–165.

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